The Many Twist and Turns of the 14th Amendment.

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Many blame the enactment of the 14th Amendment as the beginning of the slippery slope taking us into Statism default dependence on government and away from our States’ of residence self-reliance or independence. There are many documents that may need review since the research is extensive and reading it is almost like an Agatha Christy mystery novel. It’s hard to identify the writers for most of the information is like a shared effort between individuals from all walks of life who have contributed to it. This article here is another contribution by Joyce Rosenwald so those interested in learning more about the many twist and turns of the 14th Amendment could have it available for discussion or legal research. I must admit that I am not an expert in this area and the reason I am posting is that there is ongoing concerns with how this amendment affected our form of government and its impact on our ability to retain liberty. The public has a right to know about the 14th Amendment and have some information for further reseach and as always please do secondary research.

Joyce’s information follows below:


Allegiance to federal government must take priority over allegiance to God.
U.S. v. MACINTOSH, 283 U.S. 605 (1931)

Since 1946 we are at a place where the Humanist-infected Court believes that God is dead, and is looking for a paradigm or metaphor that can be used to purge this dead religion from American life and institutions.

All the states’ laws were taken over and were being written by the Private BAR by 1946. COINCIDENCE?

Model State Administrative Procedure Acts (1946) (National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, 9C U.L.A. 179 (1957), Id 1961, 14 U.L.A.
357 (1980), Id 1981, 14 U.L.A. 73 (Supp. 1985).

It appears the attempt to destroy the nation from within is not a conspiracy….

The bar encourages upholding and using the 14th amendment to socially engineer the people to go to a place they do not wish to go, which is into a socialist state where God is dead and government is viewed as God.

What is the 14th amendment?
Is it a social contract?
Is it a gift, as was the Trojan Horse?

United States v. Celestine, 215 U.S. 278, 30 S.Ct. 93, 54 L.Ed. 195 (1909)
U.S. citizenship was refered to as “a gift.”

Whatever it is, it appears to be a mechanism of law that can enslave by
forced legislation to take your G-D given rights and replace them with privileges from government.
As a 14th amendment citizen you receive compelled benefits. As a result, the court will tell you they will not rule on the constitutionally of an act for anyone who receives a benefit from government.

appears to have made your constitutions null and void.
Of course, the Ashwander rules were also written by Judges.


SO, what do you get as a 14th amendment citizen?
Here’s what the court said:

“The only absolute and unqualified right of a United States citizen is to have a residence within the territorial boundaries of the United States”
US vs. Valentine 288 F. Supp. 957

OH…..there’s one more important right you have as a 14th amendment citizen. . You get to pay the federal debt without the right to challenge it!
Government calls this a gift?
NOTICE, 14TH amendment citizens only have 2 rights. All other gifts from government are privileges, and privileges can be removed by the courts.

It appears the lawyers have the system under their thumb.
No private judiciary you say? How about if I prove the constitutional judiciary was destroyed by President Lincoln, who also gave you the 14th amendment, and he replaced it with the DOJ under direct control of the executive.
Read below:
“Congressional Globe”. The following are excerpts from the April 20th through 29th, 1870 “Congressional Globe” concerning H.R. 1328 which established the Department of Justice to CONTINUE TO CARRY OUT MARTIAL LAW
RULE nearly five years after the end of the Civil War:

“The following bureaus shall be established in this department [the Department of Justice]: a Bureau of International Law,[international law was introduced into law for the american people in 1865, under Lincoln, who gave you the 14th amendment] a Bureau of Revenue Law, a Bureau of Military and Naval Law, a Bureau of Postal Law, a Bureau of Land Management Law.”

Congressman Lawrence then said in the record:
“This Bill, however, does transfer to the Law Department, or the Department of Justice as it is now called, the cognizance of all subjects of martial law, and the cognizance of all subjects of military and naval law, except that portion of the administration of military justice which relates to military court martial, their proceedings, and the supervision of records.

“If a question of martial law is to be determined by the law officers of government, it will now belong to the Attorney General, or to this Department of Justice. It will not belong to the Judge Advocate General of the Army. He will not be called upon for any opinion relating to martial law or military law except as to that portion of the administration of military law which relates to military justice. ” [you got provisional military courts which you still live under]

“In other words, the Judge Advocate General, instead of giving legal opinions to the Secretary of War relating to the status of the states of the union, their right to call upon the government for military protection, or military aid, and other grave Constitutional questions, will be limited. The Judge Advocate General will perform duties administrative in their character and almost exclusively so.

“But I will state to the House why, in my judgment, no transfer of the Judge Advocate General or of his duties to the Department of Justice has been proposed in this Bill. If this had been done, the Bill would have encountered the opposition of some of the officers of the Bureau of Military Justice and their friends, and so great is the power of men in office, so difficult is it to abolish an office, that we were compelled in the consideration of this subject to leave officers in this Bureau untouched in their official tenure in order that this Bill might get through Congress.

“But so far as the Solicitor and Naval Judge Advocate General is concerned, he is transferred with all his supervisory power over naval court partials and the records and proceedings of such courts, so that to that extent, this Bill accomplishes the great purpose which it has in view of bringing into one department the whole legal service of the government. It is misfortunate that there should be different constructions of the laws of the United States by different law officers of the United States.”


These traitors knew they would have encountered opposition from the military with the provisions of H.R. 1328, so they decided to leave the military officers untouched during their tenure, and transfer them to supervisory positions over court partials. This appeased the military leaders, who didn’t have the foggiest idea as to what was really going on.

Had the traitors fleeced the military of all their powers during their tenure in office, the military would have realized and possibly taken some military action. But as nothing was happening at the hen house, they slept through this entire situation which resulted in an overthrow of the Constitution — an overthrow under which government pretended to operate in 1933, and under which it continues to pretend to operate today.

The traitors were now faced with a very serious problem, namely, what to do with the powers of the Office of the Judge Advocate General when their tenure in office expired. And they solved this dilemma by adding the following amendments, detailed in that same “Congressional Globe”:

Congressman Jenks: “I move to amend Section 3 by inserting the word “naval” before the words “Judge Advocate General”.
The amendment was agreed to and later Congressman Finkelburg stated:

“I would suggest the propriety of amending the third section of this Bill by inserting after the words “the Naval Solicitor and Naval Judge Advocate General” the words “who shall hereafter be known as Naval Solicitor”.

Mr. Jenks: I have no objection to that amendment.

This amendment was also agreed to, and the Office of the Judge Advocate General became known as the Naval Solicitor. Thus, when the existing tenure was over, the new office would have a different set of rules and regulations so that the Bill accomplished the great purpose which it had in view of bringing into one department the whole legal service of the government without the power of the Office of the Judge Advocate General getting in their way.

But they had one other problem facing them, namely, DIRECT ACCESS to the Treasury for the Department of Justice without interference. They accomplished this by the following three sections of the Bill:

“…The Eighth Section provides that the Attorney General is hereby empowered to make all necessary rules and regulations for the government….
“…The Eleventh Section provides that all monies hereafter drawn out of the Treasury upon requisition of the Attorney General shall be dispersed by such one of the clerks herein provided for the Attorney General as he may designate, and so much of the First Section of the Act, making appropriations, past March 3rd, 1859, as provides that money drawn out of the Treasury upon requisition of the Attorney General shall be dispersed by such dispersing officer as the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby repealed….

“…The Fifteenth Section provides that the supervisory powers now exercised by the Secretary of the Interior over the accounts of the district attorneys, marshals, clerks, and other officers of the courts of the United States, shall be exercised by the Attorney General….”

It is important here to remember that under the Trading with the Enemy Act, the District Courts of the United States are:
“…hereby given jurisdiction to make and enter all such rules as to notice and otherwise and all such orders and decrees and to issue such process as may be necessary and proper in the premises to enforce the provisions of this Act.”

It is here that we find out that the district attorneys, marshals, clerks and other officers of the courts are under the Department of Justice. That seems an obvious statement, given the state of the nation today. But the REAL PROBLEM — given the broad scope of powers granted the District Courts under the Trading with the Enemy Act — is that the Department of Justice is *NOT* a part of the Judicial Branch of Government! The judicial branch is now an agency under the executive!

According to Section 101 of Title 5 of the United States Code, the Department of State, the Department of Treasury, the Department of Defense, the DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, the Department of the Interior, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Department of Transportation, the Department of Energy, the Department of
Education, and the Department of the Veteran Affairs are *ALL* federal agencies under the Executive Branch of Government.

Compare what’s above with what’s below:
If we went to the library today and picked up a copy of Title 12 USC and went to Section 95 (b) we will find a law which states:
“The actions, regulations, rules, licenses, orders and proclamations heretofore or hereafter taken, promulgated, made, or issued by the President of the United States or the Secretary of the Treasury since March the 4th, 1933, pursuant to the authority conferred by Subsection (b) of Section 5 of the Act of October 6th, 1917, as amended [12 USCS Sec. 95a], are hereby approved and confirmed. (Mar. 9, 1933, 48 Stat. 1.)”.
No need to read bills before they are voted on. They’ve been confirmed as passed since 1933.
Not only that, but the Secretary of the Treasury gets any bill he wants passed, confirmed as passed. We get 2 presidents for the price of 1!
Another gift?

Below are more wonderful things the court is doing for us:

EVERSON v. BOARD OF EDUCATION, 330 U.S. 1 (1947) – “The Establishment Clause did not require government neutrality between religion and irreligion …. There is simply no historical foundation for the proposition that the Framers intended to build the “wall of separation” that was constitutionalized in Everson. Wm.Rehnquist
MCCOLLUM v. BOARD OF EDUCATION, 333 U.S. 203 (1948) – “We are all agreed that the First and the Fourteenth Amendments have a secular reach far more penetrating in the conduct of Government than merely to forbid an ‘established church.'” Justice Felix Frankfurter
TORCASO v. WATKINS, 367 U.S. 488 (1961) – The day after the U.S. Constitution was ratified, every state in the union believed that an oath was an appeal to God. Since atheists did not believe in God, they could not take an oath, and so atheists were not permitted to hold public office or testify in courts. The First Amendment was designed to keep the federal government from interfering in the way states understood their duties to God. “Congress shall make no law . . . .”
All of that changed in 1961 when the Supreme Court determined that the 14th Amendment gave the court the power to amend a state constitution where that constitution dealt with religion.
ENGEL v. VITALE, 370 U.S. 421 (1962) – Every session of Congress begins with prayer. Do Christians in schools have the same rights? Because of the 14th Amendment and this case, No; they’re not even allowed to read the prayers from Capitol Hill (State Brd. of Educ v. Netcong, 262 A.2d 21 (1970).
ABINGTON SCHOOL DIST. v. SCHEMPP, 374 U.S. 203 (1963) – 14th Amendment used to remove voluntary Bible reading from government schools
WALZ v. TAX COMMISSION OF CITY OF NEW YORK , 397 U.S. 664 (1970) – Churches could be destroyed under the 14th Amendment, but Court says they serve the secular purpose of making America look “pluralistic.”
LEMON v. KURTZMAN, 403 U.S. 602 (1971) – Based on the Walz case and the 14th Amendment, the Court invents the “Lemon Test”: Every legislation must have for its purpose a goal which is acceptable to Secular Humanists, its primary effect must not be to advance the interests of those who oppose Secular Humanism, and it must not bring the government “under God” in an “excessive” way. Is there any wonder that Secularism has advanced so?
STONE v. GRAHAM, 449 U.S. 39 (1980) – 14th Amendment allows federal courts to reach into local school classrooms and rip any copy of the Ten Commandments off the wall because they might “induce the schoolchildren to read, meditate upon, perhaps to venerate and obey, the Commandments.” Horrors! Thanks be to the 14th Amendment!
WALLACE v. JAFFREE, 472 U.S. 38 (1985) – An Alabama law authorized a one-minute period of silence for students. In striking down the law, the appeals court and the Supreme Court agreed: “It is not the activity itself that concerns us; it is the purpose of the activity that we shall scrutinize.” After the bill became law, one legislator admitted he hoped school children might use the moment of silence to pray. That secret intention and the 14th Amendment gave the Court the power to strike down the moment of silence.
EDWARDS v. AGUILLARD, 482 U.S. 578 (1987) – 14th Amendment empowers court to prohibit teaching evidence against Darwinism in government schools.
ALLEGHENY COUNTY v. GREATER PITTSBURGH ACLU, 492 U.S. 573 (1989) – 14th Amendment empowers Court to order Pennsylvania county to remove nativity scene from public view.
LEE v. WEISMAN, 505 U.S. 577 (1992) – 14th Amendment allows Court to order local school not to permit a Jewish Rabbi from uttering a non-sectarian prayer in front of graduation ceremony.
Proposition 187
In 1994 California passed a ballot initiative, Proposition 187, which would have denied “free” (that is, taxpayer-funded) social services to illegal aliens. Californians, under the delusion that they had the right to govern themselves, defied fashionable opinion—liberal and “conservative” alike—in passing the initiative. But they found out who really governed them when the federal courts prevented the implementation of 187, in the name of the Fourteenth Amendment. What does forcing a state to bankrupt itself by giving away “free” services to people who are in the country illegally have to do with the Fourteenth Amendment? Who knows. But this is why many people opposed it in the first place: Language in the amendment that meant something specific and finite when taken in its proper context became a recipe for federal domination of the states when torn from that context. Thomas E. Woods
Forced Welfare Payments
Thanks to California’s relatively high welfare payments, the Golden State attracts a large number of people who want to collect welfare. This has resulted in serious and persistent economic difficulties for the state. To cope with the strain, California adopted a policy in which new settlers, for the first year of their residence in California, were limited in the welfare benefits they could receive to what they would have had in their state of origin. In Saenz v. Roe (1999), however, the Supreme Court found—surprise!— that California’s law violated the Fourteenth Amendment. This time it was the “privileges or immunities” clause that was cited. California, by limiting the amount of welfare money it paid out to settlers in the first year, apparently violated the “right to travel.” By forcing California to increase its welfare payments to new residents, the Court had in effect raised taxes on Californians without their consent. (Wasn’t there a revolution fought over that somewhere?) Thomas E. Woods
Forced Busing, Tax Increases
In North Carolina Board of Education v. Swann, the Court struck down a state statute providing that no student would be compelled to attend any school for the purpose of improving racial balance in the schools. In Washington v. Seattle School District, the Court did the same with a statewide voter initiative preventing mandatory busing for purposes of integration. In U.S. v. Yonkers, a federal judge held the Yonkers city government in contempt, ordering it to integrate its schools by building scattersite public housing in predominantly white areas. This line of cases reached its coercive nadir in Missouri v. Jenkins, when the Supreme Court held that, to further integration, a federal judge could order a local government to increase property taxes, even though the increase was barred by the state constitution. Gene Healy
Using the 14th Amendment to give the federal government authority over every law in every state that relates to life, liberty or property is a prescription for a totalitarian dictatorship of unimaginable horror.
SO, what do you think? Is it time to return this gift to the federal government ?
If we do, we can bring GOD back into our lives and maybe a few more GOD given rights we lost.
I believe the courts only adjudicate for the federal 14th amendment citizens. They were created by federal statute and have to live under the federal statutes.
I believe GOD created living breathing people and they live under GOD’S law.


The Insurrection Act (enacted in 1807) delegates authority to the President to federalize and deploy the National Guard domestically during an insurrection or civil disturbance (10 U.S.C. Sections 331-335). Section 331 authorizes the President to use federal military forces to suppress an insurrection at the request of a state government. Section 332 authorizes the President to use armed forces in such manner as he deems necessary to enforce the laws or suppress a rebellion. Section 333 authorizes the President to use federal military forces to protect individuals from unlawful actions that obstruct the execution of federal laws or which impede the course of justice under federal laws.

Section 333 was enacted to implement the Fourteenth Amendment and does not require the request or consent of the governor of the affected state.


Your Home Town & UN Power Grab via Agenda 21

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Here is an article that shows the lack of informed consent to the public and to voters about what is behind some of the many inimical changes occuring across America. The people have the right to know what, who, what, when and how; about events taking place local and globally; especially when they are paying for many of the very same programs which are taking away their liberties, freedoms and right to care for themselves, communities and family. Afterall, serfdom and slavery never worked in the past so what makes some think it will work in the planned behind closed doors future? Article follows by Kenneth White, President of Virginia Tax payers Association.
[Following is public statement by Kenneth White, President of Virginia
Taxpayers Association, given publicly at 2:25 p.m.
Tuesday, March 8, 2011, in Nelson County Courthouse, Lovingston,
Virginia, at regular monthly meeting of Nelson County, Virginia, Board
of Supervisors:]
Subject: UN Masterminds Local Governments


Mr. Chairman and members of the Board, my name is Kenneth White,
93 Shields Gap Road, Roseland, and I am President of the Virginia Taxpayers Association.

In all of your Board’s discussions, with Zoning Administrator Fred Boger, you are operating under the extreme delusion that you are making the decisions locally, and that Washington and the United Nations have nothing whatever to do with your work.

The fact is, as shown by the blockbuster attached scholarly and thoroughly researched (7-page)article in the February 21, 2011 The New American magazine, that virtually everything you do falls within concepts and mandates laid out by the UN’s Agenda 21. A few years ago, under badly advised tree-hugger pressure from would-be environmentalists, unfortunately caved in to by then Representative Virgil Goode, this Board passed a ruling, based on the UN’s “sustainable development”, that no logging roads would any longer be permitted on the eastern slope of federal land within Nelson County, allegedly to “preserve” the national forest.

But as this article brings out, “sustainable development” has never been defined in any legal document, and can mean whatever the user of the term wants it to mean. The International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, including over 1,200 local government members, has the mission to “mobilize local governments to help their countries implement (EXTREMELY COSTLY, addition by VTA) multilateral environmental agreements, such as the Rio convention through Cities for Citizen Protection, Local Action for Biodiversity and other initiatives.”

The result is that locals lobby and pressure the national government to hop aboard the global program that will transfer more money, authority and power to the UN. By deception, bribe, entice, seduce and flatter local officials, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and corporations to join the green lobby.

Your regional government activities are already an integral and necessary part of this Agenda 21, which proposes an array of activities that are intended to be implemented by every person on earth, with phrases like “profound reorientation”, “all human society”, “every level”, “demand” and “require”, to constitute an undisguised call for total regimentation of all life on the planet.

What should your response be to this information? Well, we would urgently recommend that you make copies of this article, and distribute them to each member of the Thomas Jefferson Planning District Commission, to our state delegate and state senator, to our United States representative and our two United States senators, and to the president of the United States, asking them all to take effective action to stop further progression of this insidious movement to make slaves of all of us.

It should be noted that a favorite word of all these planners is “stakeholders”, but nowhere will you find by what lawful procedure the identity of all these individuals or entities has been determined, and who agreed that any specific organization should be a “stakeholder.” We do know that Barack Obama has a number of individuals in his cabinet who are actively promoting this totalitarianism, and that it will progress further unless all of us, led by informed grassroots citizens, put a stop to this unlawful action by the UN, which is actually a private organization elected by no one.

Since you are already in violation of the Constitutions of Virginia and the United States, and the Posse Comitatus Act, as we in VTA have already documented exhaustively in no less than twenty-six regular monthly Board meetings, our message to you today is a warning not to further incriminate yourselves by now refusing to take new action which is obviously required.

That concludes my Statement.

My comments: Many countries are pretending to go along with this program but the intent may be that once this centralized micro-managed of all human kind, all animals with tracking of course and planet takes place they will be the ones to take over. This is a theory that four star General Thomas Power (USAF, Ret.) wrote about in his book, Designed for Survival (1964) which was so carefully purged from many of our libraries as many other American historical books, in it he dedicated an entire chapter titled, The One World Snydrome and What Price for Peace? fully explaining some of the fallacies and make believe that this giving away of our Nations sovereignty and right to self protect could pose. Now granted, I have the book but time is limited now since working a full schedule with two children, work and University program in business but this is important; especially since he stated that since our banking system is flawed all nations will see us as aggressors and that in many ways is what will lead us to losing ourselves. If we are not in charge of our money or financial system and other outside interests are; then we may just be spinning our wheels being subjected to others plans for us and that it is a shame for such a great Nation to fall and one that in spite of being so young became the strongest and most advanced even in its approach to others with ethics and liberties which is what is part of our founding, a nation forged to get away from bondage, tyranny and human injustice.

Book chapter: One World-Syndrome by Gen. Thomas Power


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Stand up to be counted for the well-being of your country.

There is no doubt that our Nation seems to be having one catastrophe after the next without much media scrutinity or real reporters covering by investigation the story and with events that in reality pose a real danger to our well-being, our children, future security, independence, economy and that of our international neighbor’s. We call ourselves moral dutiful citizens that believe in our creator and thankful of the blessings given to us as expressed all around us by the beauty, might and natural abundance of our country yet fail miserably in keeping a watch over our Republic in these turbulent times were deception and corruption are so prevalent due to greed, hunger for geopolitical power and control over the people of the world along with its resources. All this we fought against and forged one nation under God with rule of law and checks & balances between the branches of government yet today have allowed all kinds of usurpations of power and abuse over the people of America that is slowly leading to our destruction by us remaining despondent as if in awe or disbelief of what is unfolding over our very eyes on a daily basis. I ask of all of you to educate yourselves on the issues, ask questions, make phone calls, and keep a close watch over your individual states and communties for our lives and future depend on it. This we need to do unless of course you all wish to just watch in denial and despondency as we lose all that we fought so hard to defend (liberty, justice, opportunity, defence against oppression and rule of law respectful of society and individuals), and not act as if Americanism is now in a declining product cycle ready to go into extinction. The alternative of what is taking place and being presented to us is not a better system for it can be clearly seen that anyone for the right price or profit may be expendable even nature, people, safety or our entire eco-system. A future plutocracy, olygarchy, or fascist state were big players like Kings or Queens may rule with citizens as serfs at their disposal as in years past and do as they please and that is what we stood against and left to become what we are supposed to be today independent and free from oppression. Liberty is what allowed us to enterprise without fearing self-expression and giving us determination to be self reliant and not dependent or needy. Please stand up to be counted in taking America back away from predatory wolves, false prophets, false doctrines and back to glory in rightiousness with respect for life of the people and joy in the beauty of nature and natural creation not in exploitation or old world bondage being made new by media advertizing. by Theresa Nielsen Precinct 391 Leader. Please do not let America die as the bird below.

Bird in Gulf by Associated Press Greg Bluestien, yahoo photos.

Article below by John Spring:

“If someone of wealth were to destroy your home and critically injure your children, would you accept an offer to completely rebuild your home and to provide complete professional medical care for your loved ones provided that you would never be allowed on your property, surrounded by a very high wall or covered fence, nor permitted to visit your kids or even communicate with them, not knowing if they would live or die, until after the entire project had been completed? Of course, you would probably refuse such an offer because no one would want to be kept in the dark under such severe circumstances–especially without being informed of the actually quality of the work and, more important, the well being of your children.

However, in the case of British Petroleum’s “clean-up” program for the coastal waters and wetlands in the Gulf of Mexico, it appears as if our federal, state and local governments within this disaster area have all agreed to such corporate demands. British Petroleum is not permitting the news media into these coastal waters and wetlands where “clean-up” operations are underway without a special security clearance that would require at least an advanced two-day request prior to being considered for entry. Therefore, our federal, state and local government agencies, in that coastal area, are acting on behalf of British Petroleum rather than for us.

The recent Oscar-winning motion picture producer of Avatar, who has expertise with underwater photography, access to submersible marine craft and valid solutions for this awesome disaster, has been denied permission to enter this critical area in the Gulf of Mexico by British Petroleum. Perhaps, most of you reading this message may not understand my concern because you have not, yet, been provided with adequate information about the significance of coastal waters and wetlands.

When I was a geography student at California State University, Long Beach and later as a graduate student before writing my M.A. thesis titled, The Sunset-Bolsa Chica Area, at California State University, Fullerton, I completed extensive research on marine natural habitat along coastal wetlands, salt marshes and estuaries throughout the United States. My coastal research revealed that nearly every type of ocean fish, sea mammal and waterfowl actually originate in estuaries, wetlands and salt marshes. Within the tall marsh grass or spartina are the nurseries and fisheries for nearly all marine wildlife and many other species of animals living along the coast. The fluctuating tidal action in these wetlands is crucial for life. So if the tidal water circulation is disturbed or if chemical toxins are sprayed on wetlands, the natural habitat or biota can be completely destroyed. One it is destroyed, this refuge for wildlife may never return to any viable conditions. Irreversible become its final status. What I also discovered with my coastal research is that the wetlands, salt marsh and mangrove swamp along the Mississippi River Delta in Louisiana, the Pelican State, alone hold about 40 percent of all of the highly-productive ecosystems required for commercial and sport fishing in America’s offshore and coastal waters.

As an economic geographer, I am also concerned about the proposed forthcoming moratorium for all offshore drilling operations along the coasts of the United States because of the adverse impact that it will place upon our nation’s economy during this crucial time. Just as we would never think of punishing or penalizing an entire classroom of children for the unsatisfactory behavior of one spoiled child, neither should we penalize the other oil and gas companies operating offshore with outstanding records and reliable back-up systems due to the unsatisfactory actions and unfair policies of British Petroleum. Yes, I hope to someday drive an electric automobile, but we cannot switchover to an entirely different vehicle overnight.

So unless we as Americans demand full access to all legitimate parties with proper credentials, our highly-sensitive ecosystems may actually be destroyed by British Petroleum’s “clean-up” operations. Because if no one is monitoring how these wetlands, barrier island beaches and salt marshes are actually being cleaned-up, what is there to prevent British Petroleum from bringing in heavy equipment to these sites during the dark hours of night to bury all of the evidence and spray toxic chemicals on all flora and fauna in these designated and restricted coastal areas that are currently “off limits” to the public and concerned citizens.